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Requirements in Executing a Hot Tap

1 INTRODUCTION This article details the technical and safety requirements for executing a hot tap on hydrocarbon pipelines, piping, or tanks. Hot tapping is a method of making a new connection to an existing pressurized pipeline or vessel without interrupting the flow...

Pipeline Pitting and Repair Techniques

1 INTRODUCTION & BACKGROUND Pipelines are the most cost-effective and environment-friendly mode of hydrocarbon fuel transportation, if and when operated under prudential industry practices or standards. Starting from wellheads, high-pressure steel pipelines handle...

Economics of Hot Tapping

1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Pipeline Maintenance, Upgrade and repair options Maintenance, emergency repairs, and upgrades form a significant part of any pipeline and plant operations. These include, inter alia [1]: Attaching a branch connection to the line Installing an...